History Of Photography:
It is hard to imagine the world, without the smart phone camera which we carry everywhere and capture every moment we want to. But it wasn’t always like that, photography has come in a long way since its origin. So, we are going to take a detour back in time to see how it all started. So, look the history of photography and you will wonder a lot to know the facts!
In 1839, the scientist Sir john F.W. Herschel used the word photography for the first time. The word photography originates from the French word “phtographie” that is based on Greek word “phos” means light and “graphie” means paintbrush/stylus. Graphie also means the demonstration by lines or drawing. So, by combining those two will result in drawing with light.
The Pinhole Camera:
About 2500 year ago, the Chinese were the first to give the basic idea of the pinhole camera and also to document it. 5 centuries ago the Chinese wrote about how the image was made on the opposite wall upside down by pinhole camera as the same way images enter in our eyes.
The famous Greek philosopher Aristotle mention in his work about image formation of pinhole camera in 4th Century BC. He questioned the fact that when the light goes through a rectangular peep hole then why it appears to be in a circular form of a funnel? He didn’t find the answer to this question and this question remains unanswered until about 1600 years later.
The Camera Obscura:
The Arab physicist Alhazen invented the camera obscura, independently. It is an optical device that led toward photography and camera. Camera obscura in Latin is for the dark room.
Alhazen Ibn Al-Haytham (1011-1021):
In early 1000s AD (1011-1021) the Iraqi scientist Alhazen describe the invention of the camera obscura in this Book of Optics so, it is credited to him.
Robert Boyle And Robert Hooke (1665-1666):
Later in 1665-1666 the two English scientists Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke invented a portable camera obscura. Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) the English scientists, draw the images with the help of the camera obscura.
Joseph Nicephore Niepce invented the heliography and produced the world first photo in 1827. Heliography is a chemical process in which glass or metal was coated with naturally occurring asphalt (Bitumen of Judeo). A metal or glass was hardened in proportion to its exposure to light then it was washed with lavender oil, only hardened areas remained. The only problem was to fix the image so that it continues to darken when to expose in the light that’s why he used the lavender oil.
Joseph Nicephore Niepce (1816):
The Frenchman Joseph Nicephore Niepce in 1816, made the first camera by the crude wood fitted with microscope lens. Nicephore Niepce invented the heliography in 1826 and he used the heliography process to print the first metal plate. It was the first step taken towards the permanent photograph from nature taken by the camera obscura. Nicephore Niepce exposed the plate under an ordinary engraving and copied it by photographic means.
Louis Daguerre (1789-1851): Daguerreotype:
In 1837, Louis Daguerre worked with Nicephore Niepce to invent the first practical photographic process. Until the mid-1850s, this process was broadly used in photography. In this process, a brass plate coated with silver was prepared by the exposure to iodine vapor and exposed to light in the camera for quite a few minutes.
They fixed the weak positive image produced by mercury vapor with the salt solution. This process was called Daguerreotype and it was patent by Daguerre. In 1839, French Government bought this patent and gave the Daguerreotype to the world for free. The Daguerreotype created the positive of the image which meant it couldn’t be duplicated and the camera took so much time to capture almost thirty minutes.
George Eastman: Box Camera:
In 1884, George Eastman invented the flexible film which allows multiple images to be taken on light sensitive paper. George Eastman introduced the box camera in 1888, and box camera made the photography easy and reachable to a large number of the people.
William Henry Fox Talbot: Calotype:
In 1839, the paper was presented to Royal Society of London by Henry Fox Talbot. This paper was about the invention called calotype. This invention produced the inferior quality images but it allowed the multiple copies of one image.
Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi: Visiting Cards:
In 1854, Andre Adolphe invented the photographic visiting cards. The visiting cards were actually an albumen copy printed on the card. Albums were used to display the cards.
Eadweard Muybridge is known as the pioneer in motion photography. With the help of twenty-four cameras, Muybridge was successful in photographing the horse running. Thomas Eakins was also into the development of motion photography and he invented the camera which can capture the moving person in the shot.
So, now we know how photography evolved and emerged in the form as it is today.